WDR26-Related Intellectual Disability

In: GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993.


Clinical characteristics: WDR26-related intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability, characteristic facial features, hypotonia, epilepsy, and infant feeding difficulties. To date 15 individuals, ages 24 months to 34 years, have been reported. Developmental delay is present in all individuals and ranges from mild to severe. All individuals have delayed speech. Although some begin to develop speech in the second year, others have remained nonverbal. Seizures, present in all affected individuals reported to date, can be febrile or non-febrile (tonic-clonic, absence, rolandic seizures); most seizures are self limited or respond well to standard treatment. Affected individuals are generally described as happy and socially engaging; several have stereotypies / autistic features (repetitive or rocking behavior, abnormal hand movements or posturing, and at times self-stimulation).

Diagnosis/testing: The diagnosis of WDR26-related ID is established in a proband with suggestive clinical features and a heterozygous pathogenic variant in WDR26 identified by molecular genetic testing.

Management: Treatment of manifestations: Standard treatment of developmental delay / intellectual disability, seizures, infant feeding problems, and behavioral issues.

Surveillance: In infancy: regular assessment of swallowing, feeding, and nutritional status to determine safety of oral vs gastrostomy feeding. For all age groups: routine monitoring of developmental progress, educational needs, and behavioral issues.

Genetic counseling: WDR26-related ID is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. All individuals reported to date have the disorder as the result of a de novo pathogenic variant. If the WDR26 pathogenic variant found in the proband cannot be detected in the leukocyte DNA of either parent, the recurrence risk to sibs is estimated to be 1% because of the theoretic possibility of parental germline mosaicism. Prenatal testing for a pregnancy at increased risk and preimplantation genetic testing are possible.

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