Hypotension and Hypocapnia During General Anesthesia in Piglets: Study of S100b as an Acute Biomarker for Cerebral Tissue Injury

J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2020 Jul;32(3):273-278. doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000601.


Background: Hypotension and/or hypocapnia might increase general anesthesia (GA)-related neuromorbidity in infants, but safe levels of perioperative blood pressure are poorly defined. Serum protein S100b has been used as screening, monitoring, and prediction tool in the management of patients with traumatic brain injury. Using an animal model, we investigated serum S100b as an acute biomarker of cerebral hypoperfusion and cerebral cell dysfunction during hypotension, hypocapnia, or combined hypotension/hypocapnia during GA.

Methods: Fifty-seven sevoflurane-midazolam anesthetized piglets aged 4 to 6 weeks were randomly allocated to control (n=9), hypotension (n=18), hypocapnia (n=20), or combined hypotension and hypocapnia (n=10). Hypotension (target mean arterial blood pressure: 35 to 38 or 27 to 30 mm Hg) was induced by blood withdrawal and nitroprusside infusion, and hypocapnia by hyperventilation (target PaCO2: 28 to 30 and 23 to 25 mm Hg). Serum S100b and albumin were measured at baseline, before and 60 minutes after the interventions, and following 60-minute recovery.

Results: Serum S100b concentrations decreased over time (P=0.001), but there was no difference in S100b between control piglets and those exposed to hypotension, hypocapnea, or a combination of the both (P=0.105). Albumin decreased in all 4 groups (P=0.001).

Conclusion: S100b did not increase following 60 minutes of systemic hypotension and/or hypocapnia during GA in piglets. In this setting, the use of S100b as a biomarker of cerebral cell tissue dysfunction cannot be supported.

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesia, General / methods*
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Brain Injuries / blood*
  • Brain Injuries / diagnosis*
  • Brain Injuries / etiology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Hypocapnia / blood
  • Hypocapnia / complications*
  • Hypotension / blood
  • Hypotension / complications*
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit / blood*
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit / genetics
  • Swine


  • Biomarkers
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit