Erinacine S, so far known to have been produced only in Hericium erinaceus mycelia, has just recently been discovered and is able to reduce amyloid plaque growth and improve neurogenesis in aged brain of rats. However, few investigations have been conducted on the absorption, distribution, and excretion study of Erinacine S. This study aimed to investigate the absolute bioavailability, tissue distribution, and excretion of Erinacine S in H. Erinaceus mycelia in eight-week old Sprague-Dawley rats. After oral administration and intravenous administration of 2.395 g/kg body weight of the H. erinaceus mycelia extract (equivalent to 50 mg/kg body weight Erinacine S) and 5 mg/kg of Erinacine S, respectively, the absolute bioavailability was estimated as 15.13%. In addition, Erinacine S was extensively distributed in organs such as brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The maximum concentration of Erinacine S was observed in the stomach, 2 h after the oral administration of H. erinaceus mycelia extract, whereas the maximum amount of Erinacine S found in other tissues were seen after 8 h. Total amount of unconverted Erinacine S eliminated in feces and urine in 24 h was 0.1% of the oral dosage administrated. This study is the first to show that Erinacine S can penetrate the blood-brain barrier of rats and thus support the development of H. erinaceus mycelia, for the treatment of neurological diseases.
Keywords: Erinacine S; Hericium erinaceus mycelia; bioavailability; excretion; tissue distribution.