Phosphoinositide 3 Kinase Signaling in Human Stem Cells From Reprogramming to Differentiation: A Tale in Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Compartments

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Apr 24;20(8):2026. doi: 10.3390/ijms20082026.

Abstract

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can give rise to several different cell types and can self-renew. Given their ability to differentiate into different lineages, stem cells retain huge therapeutic potential for regenerative medicine. Therefore, the understanding of the signaling pathways involved in stem cell pluripotency maintenance and differentiation has a paramount importance in order to understand these biological processes and to develop therapeutic strategies. In this review, we focus on phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) since its signaling pathway regulates many cellular processes, such as cell growth, proliferation, survival, and cellular transformation. Precisely, in human stem cells, the PI3K cascade is involved in different processes from pluripotency and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming to mesenchymal and oral mesenchymal differentiation, through different and interconnected mechanisms.

Keywords: inositide signaling; nucleus; stem cells.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Differentiation*
  • Cellular Reprogramming*
  • Human Embryonic Stem Cells / cytology*
  • Human Embryonic Stem Cells / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells / cytology*
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells / metabolism
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / cytology*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / metabolism
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction*

Substances

  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase