Curcuma longa extracts suppress pathophysiology of experimental hepatic parenchymal cell necrosis

Pathophysiology. 2019 Jun;26(2):153-162. doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2019.04.002. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Abstract

The study sought to investigate the protective potentials of Curcuma longa rhizome following potassium bromate-induced liver injury in Wistar rats. Thirty-five male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups of 5 rats each (n = 5). Control group received normal saline while the other groups received oral administration of 100 mg/kg potassium bromate daily for two weeks to induce hepatic injury. Negative control I rats were sacrificed immediately after induction of hepatic injury, while the test groups were given oral dose of ethanol extract of Curcuma longa rhizome (EECLOR) at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for two weeks. Positive control group was treated with Silymarin for two weeks, while negative control II group was observed for the two-week period. At the end of the study, serum biochemical parameters of liver function enzymes, malondialdehyde and histopathological changes were investigated. Necrotic hepatocytes were quantified in H&E-stained liver sections using the morphologic criteria of typical necrotic tissue. Hepatocytes that remained intact were identified as those with round euchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Histological examination and morphological grading of the stained sections showed massive necrosis across the zones. EECLOR improved liver functions evidenced by reduced activity of serum amino transferases. It also reduced lipid peroxidation. In addition, there was significant reduction of hepatocytes showing morphological criteria of necrosis in EECLOR-treated rats across the zones, with appreciable radial sinusoidal arrangement. In conclusion, the protective actions of EECLOR against potassium bromate liver toxicity in rats, appears to be due to its ability to reduce lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: Curcuma longa; Karyorrhexis; Lipid peroxidation; Liver injury; Massive necrosis; Potassium bromate.