Mind the Gap: How Interspecies Variability in IgG and Its Receptors May Complicate Comparisons of Human and Non-human Primate Effector Function

Front Immunol. 2019 Apr 8;10:697. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00697. eCollection 2019.

Abstract

The field of HIV research relies heavily on non-human primates, particularly the members of the macaque genus, as models for the evaluation of candidate vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. A growing body of research suggests that successful protection of humans will not solely rely on the neutralization activity of an antibody's antigen binding fragment. Rather, immunological effector functions prompted by the interaction of the immunoglobulin G constant region and its cognate Fc receptors help contribute to favorable outcomes. Inherent differences in the sequences, expression, and activities of human and non-human primate antibody receptors and immunoglobulins have the potential to produce disparate results in the observations made in studies conducted in differing species. Having a more complete understanding of these differences, however, should permit the more fluent translation of observations between model organisms and the clinic. Here we present a guide to such translations that encompasses not only what is presently known regarding the affinity of the receptor-ligand interactions but also the influence of expression patterns and allelic variation, with a focus on insights gained from use of this model in HIV vaccines and passive antibody therapy and treatment.

Keywords: Fcγ receptor; HIV; IgG; SIV; cynomolgus; neonatal Fc receptor; non-human primate; rhesus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Vaccines / immunology*
  • Animals
  • Biological Variation, Population
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Humans
  • Immunization, Passive
  • Immunoglobulin G / genetics
  • Immunoglobulin G / metabolism*
  • Primates / immunology*
  • Receptors, IgG / genetics
  • Species Specificity

Substances

  • AIDS Vaccines
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Receptors, IgG