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. 2019 May;55(5):368-375.
doi: 10.1007/s11626-019-00351-6. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Silibinin Inhibits in Vitro Ketosis by Regulating HMGCS2 and NF-kB: Elucidation of Signaling Molecule Relationship Under Ketotic Conditions

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Silibinin Inhibits in Vitro Ketosis by Regulating HMGCS2 and NF-kB: Elucidation of Signaling Molecule Relationship Under Ketotic Conditions

Dong Young Kang et al. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. .

Abstract

Ketosis is a condition where ketone bodies are produced as an alternative energy source, due to insufficient glucose for energy production so that the body switches from carbohydrate metabolism to mostly fat metabolism. In this study, we examined the anti-ketosis effects of silibinin, a major active component of silymarin. We induced ketosis in FL83B mouse hepatocytes in vitro by culturing in low glucose media and compared results to hepatocytes maintained in high-glucose conditions. We quantified β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels with a colorimetric assay. In low-glucose conditions, silibinin reduced the amount of BHB produced, compared to high-glucose conditions; thus, silibinin exhibited an anti-ketotic effect. Ketone body formation during beta oxidation is mediated by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2). The nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) regulates the transcription of HMGCS2, and plays a vital role in BHB levels. We showed that silibinin inhibited the expression of HMGCS2 and NF-kB at transcriptional and translational levels. Silibinin also inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-kB and its DNA binding activity. To elucidate the relationship between HMGCS2 and NF-kB, we tested inhibited and over-expressed NF-kB. We found that NF-kB acted as a positive regulator for HMGCS2 under ketosis treatment conditions.

Keywords: HMGCS2; Ketosis; NF-kB; Silibinin.

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