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. 2019 Jun;21(6):739-748.
doi: 10.1111/jch.13544. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Salt Consumption in Nepal: Findings From the Community-Based Management of Non-Communicable Diseases Project in Nepal (COBIN)

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Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Salt Consumption in Nepal: Findings From the Community-Based Management of Non-Communicable Diseases Project in Nepal (COBIN)

Kamal Ghimire et al. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). .
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Abstract

High salt/sodium intake is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This paper aims to examine the association between salt consumption and salt-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in Nepal. The cross-sectional data used in this study were collected as part of the community-based management of non-communicable diseases project (COBIN) to understand the amount and KAP related to salt consumption in Nepal. Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression was performed to assess the association of salt-related KAP and determinants of high salt consumption in Nepal. The mean per capita salt intake was 8.0 (±3.7) g/day, with 81.6% of the population reporting higher intake than the WHO recommendation of <5 g/day. People of upper castes [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-0.9], people in large families (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.5-0.7), respondents who were advised to lower salt intake (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) and who checked salt/sodium labels in food (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) were less likely to consume higher amounts of salt. Similarly, people who added extra salt to their food at the table (aOR = 1.4; 95 CI: 1.1-1.9) and who reported consuming high amounts of salt (aOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3) were more likely to have high salt intake. High salt intake was documented in this population. This study suggests the need for culturally tailored community-based behavior modification through health education and dietary counseling to effectively reduce salt consumption and thereby support a reduction in hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Nepal.

Keywords: Nepal; attitudes; blood pressure; dietary salt; hypertension; knowledge; practices; salt consumption; sodium.

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