Psychological impact of orthodontic treatment on quality of life - A longitudinal study

Int Orthod. 2019 Jun;17(2):269-276. doi: 10.1016/j.ortho.2019.03.009. Epub 2019 Apr 23.


Objective: (1) To assess the psychosocial, functional and aesthetic changes in young adults pre- and post-orthodontic treatment. (2) To assess the changes in quality of life in individuals having malocclusion before and after orthodontic appliance therapy. (3) To evaluate the effect of severity of malocclusion pre- and post-orthodontic treatment on quality of life among males and females.

Materials and methods: This longitudinal study included a convenience sample of 18.1 to 25.3-year-old young adults (n=400). The self-perception of dental aesthetics pre- and post-treatment related to gender variations and severity of malocclusion (Angle's class I, II, III) were also assessed using the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire with additions (PIDAQ) according to the needs of Indian ethnic group. Cronbach alpha of each domain at baseline score and Wilcoxon signed ranked test was carried out.

Results: Statistically positive psychosocial impacts were observed after orthodontic treatment for the six PIDAQ domains (P<0.001 for all six domains). There was a similar influence of gender and severity on the improvement of scores over the period in all the domains though males showed the least psychological impact on matrimonial concerns both pre- and post-treatment. The severity of malocclusion showed a difference only in functional concerns. There was less improvement in class III malocclusion group as compared to class I and class II groups.

Discussion: Orthodontic treatment has a positive psychological impact, as there was a significant improvement in self-esteem and social interaction of the individuals. Significant changes occurred in functional and aesthetic domain measures of quality of life in orthodontically treated cases. The severity of malocclusion has a negative impact on the quality of life and a significant improvement in the quality of life was observed before and after orthodontic treatment with no gender difference.

Keywords: Impact psychologique; Indian population; Malocclusion; Orthodontics; PIDAQ questionnaire; Population indienne; Psychological impact; Quality of life; Qualité de vie; Questionnaire PIDAQ.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Esthetics, Dental
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Malocclusion / psychology*
  • Malocclusion / therapy*
  • Orthodontics, Corrective / psychology*
  • Quality of Life*
  • Self Concept
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult