The economic costs of the health effects of smoking, 1984

Milbank Q. 1986;64(4):489-547.


The impact of cigarette smoking on morbidity and mortality in the United States is well known. Economic consequences of these health effects--expenditures for medical care and the value of productive output lost--have been estimated in many ways. This original prevalence-based analysis of attributable risks indicates a staggering $54 billion cost to the nation. Concern over such misallocation of resources to harmful uses is demonstrably justified.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Costs and Cost Analysis
  • Economics*
  • Efficiency
  • Female
  • Health Expenditures
  • Health Services / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Morbidity
  • Mortality
  • Quality of Life
  • Risk
  • Smoking*
  • United States