Wide Spectrum of DUOX2 Deficiency: From Life-Threatening Compressive Goiter in Infancy to Lifelong Euthyroidism

Thyroid. 2019 Jul;29(7):1018-1022. doi: 10.1089/thy.2018.0461. Epub 2019 May 31.


Six patients are described with bi-allelic DUOX2 variants and widely variable phenotypes. Patient 1 is an infant with a compressive hypothyroid goiter causing respiratory distress, which was promptly alleviated by levothyroxine (LT4). He was a compound heterozygote for DUOX2 variants, including a novel deletion of 540 base pairs. Patients 2 and 3 are siblings with the same compound heterozygous mutations of DUOX2, yet one had overt hypothyroidism at 14 months and the other lifelong euthyroidism. Patient 4 is a compound heterozygote individual and has mild persistent congenital hypothyroidism; his sister (patient 5) only had a borderline thyrotropin elevation at newborn screening, consistent with homozygous DUOX2 variants with a mild impact on enzyme activity. Their euthyroid mother (patient 6) is a compound heterozygote for the same DUOX2 mutations as her son. Targeted exome sequencing did not reveal any relevant modifiers. It is concluded that (i) prompt LT4 replacement in infants with respiratory distress due to a hypothyroid goiter makes surgery unnecessary; and (ii) the clinical expression of DUOX2 deficiency varies widely between individuals and over time, justifying periodic reevaluation of the need for LT4 replacement.

Keywords: French-Canadian; airway compromise; congenital hypothyroidism; dyshormonogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Airway Obstruction / diagnostic imaging
  • Airway Obstruction / etiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism / blood
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism / genetics*
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism / physiopathology
  • Dual Oxidases / deficiency
  • Dual Oxidases / genetics*
  • Female
  • Goiter / complications
  • Goiter / diagnostic imaging
  • Goiter / drug therapy
  • Goiter / genetics*
  • Heterozygote
  • Homozygote
  • Humans
  • Hypothyroidism / blood
  • Hypothyroidism / drug therapy
  • Hypothyroidism / genetics*
  • Hypothyroidism / physiopathology
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Neonatal Screening
  • Pedigree
  • Phenotype
  • Thyrotropin / blood
  • Thyroxine / blood
  • Thyroxine / therapeutic use*


  • Thyrotropin
  • Dual Oxidases
  • DUOX2 protein, human
  • Thyroxine