Prim Care. 2019 Jun;46(2):265-273. doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2019.02.008. Epub 2019 Apr 1.


Hematuria is common in the primary care setting. It is classified as either gross or microscopic. Hematuria warrants a thorough history and physical to determine potential causes and assess risk factors for malignancy. Risk of malignancy with gross hematuria is greater than 10%, and prompt urologic referral is recommended. Microscopic hematuria most commonly has benign causes, such as urinary tract infection, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and urinary calculi. If no benign cause for microscopic hematuria is found, the work-up includes laboratory tests to rule out intrinsic renal disease, imaging of the urinary tract, and referral to nephrology and urology subspecialists.

Keywords: CT urography; Cystoscopy; Gross hematuria; Hematuria; Microscopic hematuria; Urine cytology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Hematuria / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Urinalysis*
  • Urologic Neoplasms / complications
  • Urologic Neoplasms / diagnosis*