Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are quiescent cells in the bone marrow niche and are relatively dependent on glycolytic ATP production. On the other hand, differentiated cells, including hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), preferentially generate ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. However, it is unclear how cellular differentiation and the cell cycle status affect nutritional requirements and ATP production in HSCs and HPCs. Using a newly developed culture system, we demonstrated that survival of HPCs was strongly dependent on glucose, whereas quiescent HSCs survived for a certain duration without glucose. Among HPCs, granulocyte/monocyte progenitors (GMPs) were particularly dependent on glucose during proliferation. By monitoring the ATP concentration in live cells, we demonstrated that the ATP level was maintained for a short duration without glucose in HSCs, possibly due to their metabolic flexibility. In addition, HSCs exhibited low ATP turnover, whereas HPCs including GMPs demonstrated high ATP turnover and required efficient ATP production from glucose. These findings show that ATP turnover and nutritional requirements differ between HSCs and HPCs according to the cell cycle and differentiation status.
Keywords: Adenosine triphosphate; Granulocyte/macrophage progenitor; Hematopoietic stem cell; Stem cell metabolism.
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