Disentangling Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Proteotypes of Individuals

Cell. 2019 May 16;177(5):1308-1318.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.03.015. Epub 2019 Apr 25.


Proteotypes, like genotypes, have been found to vary between individuals in several studies, but consistent molecular functional traits across studies remain to be quantified. In a meta-analysis of 11 proteomics datasets from humans and mice, we use co-variation of proteins in known functional modules across datasets and individuals to obtain a consensus landscape of proteotype variation. We find that individuals differ considerably in both protein complex abundances and stoichiometry. We disentangle genetic and environmental factors impacting these metrics, with genetic sex and specific diets together explaining 13.5% and 11.6% of the observed variation of complex abundance and stoichiometry, respectively. Sex-specific differences, for example, include various proteins and complexes, where the respective genes are not located on sex-specific chromosomes. Diet-specific differences, added to the individual genetic backgrounds, might become a starting point for personalized proteotype modulation toward desired features.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • A549 Cells
  • Animals
  • Databases, Protein*
  • Female
  • Gene-Environment Interaction*
  • Genotype*
  • HEK293 Cells
  • HeLa Cells
  • Hep G2 Cells
  • Humans
  • Jurkat Cells
  • K562 Cells
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Proteomics
  • Sex Characteristics*