Purpose: To systematically review the evidence for health coaching as an intervention to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and reduce hospital admissions in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from database inception to August 2018 to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of health coaching for people with COPD. Eligible health coaching interventions had to include three components: goal setting, motivational interviewing, and COPD-related health education. Data were extracted on study characteristics and the effects of the intervention on HRQoL, hospital admissions, physical activity, self-care behaviour, and mood. Study quality was appraised by two authors using the Cochrane tool for assessing the risk of bias in RCTs. Effect sizes (standardized mean differences [SMD] or odds ratios [OR]) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and pooled using random effects meta-analyses.
Results: Of 1578 articles, 10 RCTs were included. Meta-analysis showed that health coaching has a significant positive effect on HRQoL (SMD = -0.69, 95% CI: -1.28, -0.09, p = .02, from k = 4) and leads to a significant reduction in COPD-related hospital admissions (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.69, p = .0001, from k = 5), but not in all-cause hospital admissions (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.41-1.12, p = .20, from k = 3). Three of four studies reported significant improvements to self-care behaviours such as medication adherence and exercise compliance.
Conclusions: This is the first systematic review to show that health coaching may be a candidate intervention to improve HRQoL and reduce costly hospital admissions in people with COPD. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide and considerably reduces HRQoL. In turn, HRQoL is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes in COPD. Health coaching is a self-management intervention for people with long-term conditions such as COPD. Studies have examined whether health coaching improves HRQOL and other health outcomes in people with COPD, but no systematic review has been conducted. What does this study add? The first systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs of health coaching for people with COPD. Health coaching may be a candidate intervention for improving HRQoL and reducing COPD-related hospital admissions in people with COPD. The need to establish the most effective health coaching components, delivery modality, and economic impact.
Keywords: HRQoL; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; health coaching; health-related quality of life; hospital admissions; self-management intervention.
© 2019 The Authors. British Journal of Health Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.