Background: Group A streptococcal infections are a major cause of benign and deadly human infections with their most destructive manifestation taking the form of necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) and toxic shock syndrome. Discussion: The mainstays of treatment have not changed since antibiotic agents were added to the standard of early diagnosis and aggressive surgical debridement, and the mortality rate continues to be staggering. In the age of targeted medicine, there is undoubtedly a need for a more precise approach to treating this spectrum of aggressive diseases. Conclusion: This review covers the basic biology and clinical presentation of NSTIs and group A streptococcal sepsis with particular attention to novel treatments that may transform care and outcomes.
Keywords: Group A streptococcus; necrotizing fasciitis; necrotizing soft tissue infection.