Traumatic Microbleeds in the Hippocampus and Corpus Callosum Predict Duration of Posttraumatic Amnesia

J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2019 Nov/Dec;34(6):E10-E18. doi: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000479.


Objective: Radiologic predictors of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) duration are lacking. We hypothesized that the number and distribution of traumatic microbleeds (TMBs) detected by gradient recalled echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) predicts PTA duration.

Setting: Academic, tertiary medical center.

Participants: Adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Design: We identified 65 TBI patients with acute GRE MRI. PTA duration was determined with the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test, Orientation Log, or chart review. TMBs were identified within memory regions (hippocampus, corpus callosum, fornix, thalamus, and temporal lobe) and control regions (internal capsule and global). Regression tree analysis was performed to identify radiologic predictors of PTA duration, controlling for clinical PTA predictors.

Main measures: TMB distribution, PTA duration.

Results: Sixteen patients (25%) had complicated mild, 4 (6%) had moderate, and 45 (69%) had severe TBI. Median PTA duration was 43 days (range, 0-240 days). In univariate analysis, PTA duration correlated with TMBs in the corpus callosum (R = 0.29, P = .02) and admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (R = -0.34, P = .01). In multivariate regression analysis, admission GCS score was the only significant contributor to PTA duration. However, in regression tree analysis, hippocampal TMBs, callosal TMBs, age, and admission GCS score explained 26% of PTA duration variance and distinguished a subgroup with prolonged PTA.

Conclusions: Hippocampal and callosal TMBs are potential radiologic predictors of PTA duration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Amnesia / etiology*
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / complications*
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / diagnosis
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic / complications*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic / diagnosis
  • Corpus Callosum / injuries*
  • Female
  • Glasgow Coma Scale
  • Hippocampus / injuries*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Recovery of Function
  • Regression Analysis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult