Current Concepts in Feminizing Gender Surgery

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2019 May;143(5):1081e-1091e. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000005595.


Learning objectives: After reading this article and viewing the video, the participant should be able to: 1. Discuss appropriate treatment guidelines, including preoperative mental health and hormonal treatment before gender-affirmation surgery. 2. Name various surgical options for facial, chest, and genital feminization. 3. Recognize key steps and anatomy during facial feminization, feminizing mammaplasty, and vaginoplasty. 4. Discuss major risks and complications of vaginoplasty.

Summary: Transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals may experience conflict between their gender identity and their gender assigned at birth. With recent advances in health care and societal support, appropriate treatment has become newly accessible and has generated increased demand for gender-affirming care, which is globally guided by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health. This CME article reviews key terminology and standards of care, and provides an overview of various feminizing gender-affirming surgical procedures.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Video-Audio Media

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Gender Dysphoria / diagnosis
  • Gender Dysphoria / psychology
  • Gender Dysphoria / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Preoperative Care / methods
  • Preoperative Care / standards
  • Psychometrics
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / methods*
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / psychology
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / standards
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / trends
  • Standard of Care
  • Transgender Persons / psychology*
  • Transsexualism / diagnosis
  • Transsexualism / psychology
  • Transsexualism / surgery*