Background: Sleep quality has been associated with human health and diseases, including cognitive decline and dementia; however major determinants of sleep disorders are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between sleep quality and adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern in a sample of Italian adults.
Methods: A total of 1936 individuals were recruited in the urban area of Catania during 2014-2015 through random sampling. A food frequency questionnaire and validated instruments were used to assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and sleep quality (Pittsburg sleep quality index). Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to determine the association between exposure and outcome.
Results: A total of 1314 individuals (67.9% of the cohort) reported adequate sleep quality: for each point increase of the Mediterranean diet score, individuals were 10% more likely to have adequate sleep quality. In an additional analysis stratifying the sample by weight status, the association between sleep quality and high adherence to the Mediterranean diet was observed only among normal/overweight individuals but not in obese participants.
Conclusions: high adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with better sleep quality either toward direct effect on health or indirect effects through improvement of weight status.
Keywords: Italy; Mediterranean diet; cognitive decline; cohort; dementia; mental health; obesity; sleep quality; weight status.