Conserved Secondary Structures in Viral mRNAs

Viruses. 2019 Apr 29;11(5):401. doi: 10.3390/v11050401.


RNA secondary structure in untranslated and protein coding regions has been shown to play an important role in regulatory processes and the viral replication cycle. While structures in non-coding regions have been investigated extensively, a thorough overview of the structural repertoire of protein coding mRNAs, especially for viruses, is lacking. Secondary structure prediction of large molecules, such as long mRNAs remains a challenging task, as the contingent of structures a sequence can theoretically fold into grows exponentially with sequence length. We applied a structure prediction pipeline to Viral Orthologous Groups that first identifies the local boundaries of potentially structured regions and subsequently predicts their functional importance. Using this procedure, the orthologous groups were split into structurally homogenous subgroups, which we call subVOGs. This is the first compilation of potentially functional conserved RNA structures in viral coding regions, covering the complete RefSeq viral database. We were able to recover structural elements from previous studies and discovered a variety of novel structured regions. The subVOGs are available through our web resource RNASIV (RNA structure in viruses;

Keywords: RNA structure; mRNA families; mRNA structure; secondary structure; structurally homogenous; structurally related; structure database; subVOG; viral mRNA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Base Composition
  • Base Sequence
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Nucleic Acid Conformation*
  • RNA Stability
  • RNA, Messenger / chemistry*
  • RNA, Viral / chemistry*
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Viral Proteins / chemistry
  • Viral Proteins / genetics


  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Viral
  • Viral Proteins