Vitamin D in Wild and Farmed Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo Salar)-What Do We Know?

Nutrients. 2019 Apr 29;11(5):982. doi: 10.3390/nu11050982.


Salmon have been widely publicized as a good dietary source of vitamin D, but recent data points to large variation in vitamin D content and differences between wild and farmed salmon. We aimed to: (1) investigate the content of vitamin D in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in wild species caught in two different waters, (2) perform a 12-week feeding trial in farmed Salmo salar with 270-1440 µg vitamin D3/kg feed (4-20 times maximum level in the EU) and (3) conduct a review for the published data on the content of vitamin D in salmonids. Content of vitamin D3 in the fillet from wild salmon caught in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea was significantly different (p < 0.05), being 18.5 ± 4.6 µg/100 g and 9.4 ± 1.9 µg/100 g, respectively. In the farmed salmon the content ranged from 2.9 ± 0.7 µg vitamin D3/100 g to 9.5 ± 0.7 µg vitamin D3/100 g. Data from 2018 shows that farmed salmon contained 2.3-7.3 µg vitamin D3/100 g. Information on the content of vitamin D in wild and farmed salmonids is very limited, which calls for further research to ensure a sustainable production of salmon with adequate vitamin D.

Keywords: Salmo salar; aquaculture; farmed; salmon; salmonids; vitamin D; vitamin D3; wild.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Wild*
  • Aquaculture*
  • Body Composition
  • Calcifediol / chemistry*
  • Calcifediol / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Meat / analysis*
  • Muscle, Skeletal
  • Salmo salar / growth & development


  • Calcifediol