The initiation of bud burst in grapevine features dynamic regulation of the apoplastic pore size

J Exp Bot. 2020 Jan 7;71(2):719-729. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erz200.


The physiological constraints on bud burst in woody perennials, including vascular development and oxygenation, remain unresolved. Both light and tissue oxygen status have emerged as important cues for vascular development in other systems; however, grapevine buds have only a facultative light requirement, and data on the tissue oxygen status have been confounded by the spatial variability within the bud. Here, we analysed apoplastic development at early stages of grapevine bud burst and combined molecular modelling with histochemical techniques to determine the pore size of cell walls in grapevine buds. The data demonstrate that quiescent grapevine buds were impermeable to apoplastic dyes (acid fuchsin and eosin Y) until after bud burst was established. The molecular exclusion size was calculated to be 2.1 nm, which would exclude most macromolecules except simple sugars and phytohormones until after bud burst. We used micro-computed tomography to demonstrate that tissue oxygen partial pressure data correlated well with structural heterogeneity of the bud and differences in tissue density, confirming that the primary bud complex becomes rapidly and preferentially oxygenated during bud burst. Taken together, our results reveal that the apoplastic porosity is highly regulated during the early stages of bud burst, suggesting a role for vascular development in the initial, rapid oxygenation of the primary bud complex.

Keywords: Apoplast; bud; bud burst; computed tomography; development; dormancy; grapevine; hypoxia; light; oxygen.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Benzenesulfonates / metabolism*
  • Biological Transport
  • Eosine Yellowish-(YS) / metabolism*
  • Light*
  • Nuclear Pore / metabolism
  • Oxygen*
  • Vitis / growth & development
  • Vitis / metabolism*
  • X-Ray Microtomography


  • Benzenesulfonates
  • acid fuchsin
  • Oxygen
  • Eosine Yellowish-(YS)