Hyperthyroidism is a clinical state that results from abnormally elevated thyroid hormones. Thyroid gland affects many organ systems; therefore, patients usually present with multiple clinical manifestations that involve many organ systems such as the nervous, cardiovascular, muscular, and endocrine system as well as skin manifestations. Hyperthyroidism is most commonly caused by Graves disease, which is caused by autoantibodies to the thyrotropin receptor (TRAb). Other causes of hyperthyroidism include toxic multinodular goiter, toxic single adenoma, and thyroiditis. Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism can be established by measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which will be suppressed with either elevated free T4 and/or T3 (overt hyperthyroidism) or normal free T3 and T4 (subclinical hyperthyroidism). Hyperthyroidism can be treated with antithyroid drugs (ATDs), radioactive iodine (RAI), or thyroidectomy. ATDs have a higher replacement rate when compared with RAI or thyroidectomy. Recent evidence has shown that thyroidectomy is a very effective, safe treatment modality for hyperthyroidism and can be performed as an outpatient procedure. This review article provides some of the most recent evidence on diagnosing and treating patients with hyperthyroidism.
Keywords: graves disease; thyroidectomy.