Background: Survival in peritoneal dissemination from appendiceal cancer after complete cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) varies within each histopathologic subtype. Analyzing patients with unique responses may uncover the mechanisms behind their extreme outcomes. We proposed a method to identify retrospectively and to characterize patients who responded exceptionally well or very poorly within each histopathologic subtype.
Methods: Retrospective review of patients with low-grade mucinous carcinoma peritonei (LGMCP), high-grade MCP (HGMCP), and HGMCP with signet ring cells (HGMCP-S) with complete CRS/HIPEC (CC-0/1) was performed. Patients were divided by recurrence status. Median follow-up was calculated for each. Exceptional responders (ExR) were defined as alive without recurrence after median follow-up of the nonrecurrent group. Poor responders (PoR) were defined as disease recurrence before median follow-up of the recurrent group. Perioperative characteristics were analyzed.
Results: LGMCP, HGMCP, and HGMCP-S had 48 (41%), 19 (23%), and 7 (14%) ExR and 11 (10%), 20 (24%), and 20 (39%) PoR, respectively. All ExR had lower median PCI (26 vs. 36 [p = 0.004]; 13 vs. 33.5 [p < 0.001]; 3 vs. 29.5 [p = 0.001]). Fewer LGMCP and HGMCP ExR had abnormal tumor markers (36% vs. 90% [p = 0.003]; 22% vs. 74% [p = 0.003]). More HGMCP and HGMCP-S ExR had CC-0 (vs. CC-1) cytoreductions (84% vs. 50%, p = 0.041; 100% vs. 40%, p = 0.008).
Conclusions: Stratifying patients by recurrence status and follow-up time successfully selects ExR and PoR within each histopathologic subtype. Perioperative characteristics of ExR versus PoR differ across histopathologic subtypes, except for disease burden. Genetic analysis may further elucidate differences and aid in the development of novel targeted therapies.