Introduction: Keloids are challenging to treat due to their inadequate response to treatment and high recurrence rate. Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) injection with or without 5-fluorouracil (5FU) is considered the first-line treatment for keloids. Three significant disadvantages of intralesional injections are the pain associated with the procedure, the uneven topography, and epidermal atrophy. Fractionated ablative carbon dioxide (CO2) laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD) of the topical solution can help facilitate transdermal drug delivery and shows promise in scar remodeling. This study examined the use of a thermomechanical device (Tixel, Novoxel) to facilitate the transdermal delivery of TAC and 5-FU in the treatment of keloid scars.
Methods: Seven patients each received eight topical thermal ablations, with one ablation performed every 2-3 weeks. TAC and 5FU were applied after each ablation. Outcomes were evaluated using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), and pain was assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS).
Results: Mean keloid VSS reduced from 8.6 ± 1.2 to 5 ± 2.7 after the eight treatments. Mean treatment pain VAS score was 2.4 ± 0.7. Patients rated their satisfaction level as moderate-high. No severe adverse reactions were noted.
Conclusion: Thermomechanical drug delivery of TAC and 5-FU is safe and effective. This is a promising option for the treatment of keloid scars, particularly in the pediatric population.
Keywords: Fluorouracil; Fractional skin ablation; Keloid; Percutaneous permeating; Resurfacing; Scar; Tixel; Transdermal drug delivery; Triamcinolone.