Purpose: This document seeks to establish guidance for the evaluation and management of women with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) to prevent inappropriate use of antibiotics, decrease the risk of antibiotic resistance, reduce adverse effects of antibiotic use, provide guidance on antibiotic and non-antibiotic strategies for prevention, and improve clinical outcomes and quality of life by reducing recurrence of urinary tract infection (UTI) events.
Materials and methods: The systematic review utilized to inform this guideline was conducted by a methodology team at the Pacific Northwest Evidence-based Practice Center. A research librarian conducted searches in Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to January Week 1 2018), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (through December 2017) and Embase (through January 16, 2018). An update literature search was conducted on September 20, 2018.
Results: When sufficient evidence existed, the body of evidence was assigned a strength rating of A (high), B (moderate), or C (low). Such evidence-based statements are provided as Strong, Moderate, or Conditional Recommendations. In instances of insufficient evidence, additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles and Expert Opinions.
Conclusions: Our ability to diagnose, treat, and manage rUTI long-term has evolved due to additional insights into the pathophysiology of rUTI, a new appreciation for the adverse effects of repetitive antimicrobial therapy, rising rates of bacterial antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and better reporting of the natural history and clinical outcomes of acute cystitis and rUTI. As new data continue to emerge in this space, this document will undergo review to ensure continued accuracy.
Keywords: recurrence; urinary bladder; urinary tract infections; women.