Laparoscopic anatomical liver resection using indocyanine green fluorescence imaging

Asian J Surg. 2020 Jan;43(1):362-368. doi: 10.1016/j.asjsur.2019.04.008. Epub 2019 Apr 28.


Background: Anatomical liver resections guided by a demarcation line after portal staining or inflow clamping of the target area have been established as essential methods for curative treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and have subsequently been applied to other malignancies. However, laparoscopic anatomical liver resection (LALR) procedures are very difficult to reproduce, and the confirmation of demarcation of the hepatic segment on a monitor is also challenging. Recently, indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging has been used to identify hepatic tumors and segmental boundaries during hepatectomy. Herein, we describe LALR using ICG fluorescence imaging.

Methods: Three patients underwent pure LALR using ICG fluorescence imaging at our institute. One patient underwent anatomical partial liver resection for HCC, another underwent segmentectomy 3 for metastatic liver cancer, and the third underwent right anterior sectionectomy for HCC. To visualize hepatic perfusion and the demarcation line by negative staining using an optical imaging system, 2.5 mg ICG was injected intravenously during surgery following clamping or closure of the proximal Glissonean pedicles.

Results: For all three cases, ICG fluorescent imaging clearly delineated the demarcation lines and allowed identification of intersegmental planes to some extent because the tumor-bearing hepatic region became non-fluorescing parenchyma during parenchymal transection. This allowed surgeons to recognize the direction and guide the transection of the liver parenchyma when performing LALR.

Conclusion: LALR using ICG fluorescence imaging is a feasible procedure for resection of the tumor-bearing hepatic region and facilitates visualization of the demarcation line and identification of the boundaries of the hepatic sections.

Keywords: Anatomical liver resection; Fluorescence imaging; Indocyanine green; Laparoscopic hepatectomy; Laparoscopic liver resection.

MeSH terms

  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnostic imaging*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery*
  • Female
  • Hepatectomy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Indocyanine Green*
  • Laparoscopy / methods*
  • Liver / surgery*
  • Liver Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Liver Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Optical Imaging / methods*
  • Staining and Labeling / methods


  • Indocyanine Green