Objective: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a condition characterized by bony proliferation at sites of tendinous and ligamentous insertions in the spine. Spinal mobility is reduced in DISH and may affect movement in the thorax, potentially leading to restrictive pulmonary function. This study investigated whether DISH is associated with restrictive spirometric pattern (RSP) in former and current smokers.
Methods: Participants (n = 1784) with complete postbronchodilator spirometry who did not meet spirometric criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at time of enrollment in the COPDGene study were included in this study. Subjects were classified as RSP if they had forced expiratory volume in 1 s(FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio > 0.7 with an FVC < 80%. Computed tomography (CT) scans were scored for the presence of DISH in accordance with the Resnick criteria. Chest CT measures of interstitial and alveolar lung disease, clinical symptoms, health surveys, and 6-min walking distance were recorded. Uni- and multivariable analyses were performed to test the association of DISH with RSP.
Results: DISH was present in 236 subjects (13.2%). RSP was twice as common in participants with DISH (n = 90/236, 38.1%) compared to those without DISH (n = 301/1548, 19.4%; p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, DISH was significantly associated with RSP (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.22-2.60; p = 0.003) after adjusting for potential confounders. The RSP group with and without DISH had significantly worse spirometry, dyspnea, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score, BODE index (Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise capacity), and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 questionnaire score.
Conclusion: In heavy smokers with an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.70, DISH is associated with RSP after adjustment for intrinsic and extrinsic causes of restrictive lung function. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT00608764.).
Keywords: COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; DIFFUSE IDIOPATHIC SKELETAL HYPEROSTOSIS; LUNG FUNCTION; SPIROMETRY.