Heart failure (HF) is characterized by poor survival, a loss of catecholamine reserve and cellular structural remodeling in the form of disorganization and loss of the transverse tubule network. Indeed, survival rates for HF are worse than many common cancers and have not improved over time. Tadalafil is a clinically relevant drug that blocks phosphodiesterase 5 with high specificity and is used to treat erectile dysfunction. Using a sheep model of advanced HF, we show that tadalafil treatment improves contractile function, reverses transverse tubule loss, restores calcium transient amplitude and the heart's response to catecholamines. Accompanying these effects, tadalafil treatment normalized BNP mRNA and prevented development of subjective signs of HF. These effects were independent of changes in myocardial cGMP content and were associated with upregulation of both monomeric and dimerized forms of protein kinase G and of the cGMP hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases 2 and 3. We propose that the molecular switch for the loss of transverse tubules in HF and their restoration following tadalafil treatment involves the BAR domain protein Amphiphysin II (BIN1) and the restoration of catecholamine sensitivity is through reductions in G-protein receptor kinase 2, protein phosphatase 1 and protein phosphatase 2 A abundance following phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition.