Objective: To describe clinical features and treatment outcomes of retinal detachment (RD) in eyes with retinitis pigmentosa (RP).
Design: Single-center, retrospective, interventional case series.
Subjects: All RP patients with RD examined between April 2003 and December 2013 and minimum 2 months of follow-up.
Methods: Medical records of RP patients were screened and 31 eyes with RD were included. Family history of RP, duration of symptoms, age at presentation, associated ocular and systemic findings, and detailed ophthalmic evaluation including presenting visual acuity, type and amount of refractive error, fundus findings, electroretinogram details, surgical details, and postoperative complications and outcomes were evaluated. Univariate analysis was done to determine risk factors associated with RD in eyes with RP and risk factors associated with poor visual outcomes after treatment. Subset analysis was also done for comparing the functional and anatomical outcomes between patients undergoing scleral buckling or vitrectomy.
Outcome measures: Final surgical reattachment rate, best-corrected visual acuity.
Results: Mean age at presentation was 22 years (median, 17; range, 4-63). Mean duration of symptoms was 12 months (median, 3 months: range, 3 days-60 months). Associated ocular findings included nyctalopia (n = 23), myopia (n = 21), and hyperopia (n = 10). Systemic associations included hearing loss (n = 5), deaf-mutism (n = 1), and Bardet-Biedel syndrome (n = 1). No association between degree of myopia and RD was noted (P = 0.63). Observed retinal breaks included horse-shoe-shaped tear (n = 15), lattice with hole (n = 7), atrophic retinal hole (n = 3), retinal dialysis (n = 3), and macular hole (n = 3). The most common location of breaks was superotemporal quadrant (n = 15). Younger age, male gender, and presence of posterior vitreous detachment were strongly associated with RD with odds ratio of 1.3 (P = 0.001), 8.3 (P = 0.010), and 6 (P = 0.003), respectively. Retinal reattachment was achieved in 13 of 13 eyes (100%) with scleral buckle and 9 of 10 eyes (90%) with vitrectomy. Vision improved from 1.63±0.52 to 0.87±0.25 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (P < 0.001) at a mean follow-up of 33 months (median, 24, range; 1-145).
Conclusion: Rhegmatogenous RD in eyes with RP is rare. Precocious vitreous degeneration and sparse pigmentation in younger male patients has a role in etiopathogenesis. Visual prognosis remains poor despite satisfactory surgical outcomes.
Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.