Association of Self-Reported Sleep and Circadian Measures With Glycemia in Adults With Prediabetes or Recently Diagnosed Untreated Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Care. 2019 Jul;42(7):1326-1332. doi: 10.2337/dc19-0298. Epub 2019 May 2.


Objective: Sleep disturbances and circadian misalignment (social jet lag, late chronotype, or shift work) have been associated with worse glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether these findings apply to adults with prediabetes is yet unexplored. We hypothesized that self-reported short sleep, poor sleep quality, and/or circadian misalignment are associated with higher glycemia, BMI, and blood pressure (BP) in adults with prediabetes or recently diagnosed, untreated T2D.

Research design and methods: Our cohort included 962 overweight/obese adults ages 20-65 years with prediabetes or recently diagnosed, untreated T2D who completed a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and validated sleep questionnaires. Independent associations of sleep and circadian variables with glycemia, BMI, and BP were evaluated with regression models.

Results: The multiethnic cohort was 55% men, with mean ± SD age 52.2 ± 9.5 years and BMI 34.7 ± 5.5 kg/m2. Mean sleep duration was 6.6 ± 1.3 h. Poor sleep quality was reported by 54% and high risk for obstructive sleep apnea by 64%. HbA1c was significantly higher in those reporting <5 or >8 h sleep per night. Sleep duration >8 h was also associated with higher fasting glucose and <6 h with higher BMI. Shift work was also associated with higher BMI. Social jet lag and delayed chronotype were associated with higher BP.

Conclusions: In our cohort, self-reported short and long sleep were both associated with adverse measures of glycemia, and short sleep and shift work were associated with higher BMI. Further research using objective measures of sleep is needed to better delineate the relationship between sleep and glycemia in adults with prediabetes or T2D.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Circadian Rhythm / physiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Jet Lag Syndrome / blood
  • Jet Lag Syndrome / complications
  • Jet Lag Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Jet Lag Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / physiopathology
  • Overweight / complications
  • Overweight / epidemiology
  • Overweight / physiopathology
  • Prediabetic State / blood*
  • Prediabetic State / complications
  • Prediabetic State / epidemiology
  • Prediabetic State / physiopathology*
  • Self Report
  • Sleep / physiology*
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / blood*
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / complications
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / blood
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / complications
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / epidemiology
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / physiopathology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose