Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 43 (4), 918-926

PCR Characterization of Microbiota on Contracted and Non-Contracted Breast Capsules


PCR Characterization of Microbiota on Contracted and Non-Contracted Breast Capsules

Yara Bachour et al. Aesthetic Plast Surg.


Background: The aetiology of capsular contracture around breast implants remains unclear. The leading theory is that a subclinical infection around the implant plays a role in the development of capsular contractions. Several studies found associations between the presence of bacteria and the occurrence of capsular contraction. However, it is unclear whether detected bacteria originate from the breast capsule, breast glandular tissue or skin contamination. Moreover, this has never been investigated with molecular techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the bacterial microbiota on breast capsules, glandular tissue and skin using a highly sensitive PCR assay.

Materials and methods: Fifty breast capsules were collected during implant removal or replacement. Ten specimens of glandular breast tissue and breast skin were collected in females who were undergoing reduction mammoplasty. A sample specimen (4 mm) was sterilely obtained from all tissues. All specimens were analysed by IS-pro, a 16S-23S interspace region-based PCR assay.

Results: Low numbers of Staphylococcus spp. (four species in four capsules) were found on breast capsules. There was no difference in bacterial presence between normal and contracted capsules. The skin of the breast-harboured Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. while the glandular tissue was sterile.

Conclusion: The low numbers of bacteria found on the capsules are most likely caused by contamination during capsule removal. More and larger studies are needed to investigate the bacterial presence on breast capsules using a PCR assay. This is the first study in which breast capsules have been studied using a highly sensitive PCR assay.

Level of evidence iv: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

Keywords: Aetiology; Bacteria; Breast augmentation; Breast implants; Capsular contracture; Immunology.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that A.E.B. has proprietary rights to IS-pro platform technology and is a cofounder of a spinoff company developing this technique.


Fig. 1
Fig. 1
IS profiles of 50 capsules, including both normal and contracted capsules. The (cumulative) intensity is expressed in RFU, which reflects the quantity of bacteria present
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
IS profiles of ten samples of breast skin. The (cumulative) intensity is expressed in RFU, which reflects the quantity of bacteria present

Similar articles

See all similar articles


    1. Spear SL, Murphy DK, Slicton A, et al. Inamed silicone breast implant core study results at 6 years. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:8S–16S. doi: 10.1097/01.prs.0000286580.93214.df. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Domanskis E, Owsley JQJ. Histological investigation of the etiology of capsule contracture following augmentation mammaplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1976;58:689–693. doi: 10.1097/00006534-197612000-00006. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Gayou R, Rudolph R. Capsular contraction around silicone mammary prostheses. Ann Plast Surg. 1979;2:62–71. doi: 10.1097/00000637-197901000-00011. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Nemecek JA, Young VL. How safe are silicone breast implants? South Med J. 1993;86:932–944. doi: 10.1097/00007611-199308000-00017. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Henriksen TF, Holmich LR, Fryzek JP, et al. Incidence and severity of short-term complications after breast augmentation: results from a nationwide breast implant registry. Ann Plast Surg. 2003;51:531–539. doi: 10.1097/ - DOI - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources