The Relationship Between Discrimination and Missed HIV Care Appointments Among Women Living with HIV

AIDS Behav. 2020 Jan;24(1):151-164. doi: 10.1007/s10461-019-02522-8.


Receiving regular HIV care is crucial for maintaining good health among persons with HIV. However, racial and gender disparities in HIV care receipt exist. Discrimination and its impact may vary by race/ethnicity and gender, contributing to disparities. Data from 1578 women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study ascertained from 10/1/2012 to 9/30/2016 were used to: (1) estimate the relationship between discrimination and missing any scheduled HIV care appointments and (2) assess whether this relationship is effect measure modified by race/ethnicity. Self-reported measures captured discrimination and the primary outcome of missing any HIV care appointments in the last 6 months. Log-binomial models accounting for measured sources of confounding and selection bias were fit. For the primary outcome analyses, women experiencing discrimination typically had a higher prevalence of missing an HIV care appointment. Moreover, there was no statistically significant evidence for effect measure modification by race/ethnicity. Interventions to minimize discrimination or its impact may improve HIV care engagement among women.

Keywords: HIV; Health status disparities; Outpatient care; Social discrimination; Women.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Appointments and Schedules
  • Attitude of Health Personnel
  • Cohort Studies
  • Discrimination, Psychological*
  • Ethnicity / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / psychology*
  • Health Status Disparities
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Compliance / psychology*
  • Patient Participation
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quality of Life
  • Social Stigma*
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Women's Health / ethnology*


  • Anti-HIV Agents