Insulin Resistance in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes is Associated with Lower Vitamin D Serum Concentration

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2021 May;129(5):396-402. doi: 10.1055/a-0895-5166. Epub 2019 May 2.


Aim: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a disease characterized by an absolute deficiency of endogenous insulin secretion. Insulin resistance (IR) may develop among patients with T1DM. Vitamin D deficiency was reported to be a risk factor in the development of IR. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and IR among patients with T1DM.

Methods: The test group consisted of 110 adult patients [males=65 (59%)] with T1DM. Participants were recruited in Poland between 1st October and 30th April in 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. VD serum level was assessed by ELISA array. IR was assessed by estimated Glucose Disposal Rate (eGDR).

Results: In the study group 21 (19%) patients were recognized as IR according to eGDR cut-offs (<7.5 mg/kg/min), 52 (47.3%) patients had VD deficiency (25(OH)D<20 ng/ml), 16 (14.5%) patients had 25(OH)D<10 ng/ml. Only 6 (5%) participants reported VD supplementation. Patients with IR, according to eGDR cut-off revealed significantly lower 25(OH)D serum level 15.7 (9.2-28.4) vs. 22.1 (13.0-38.4) ng/ml; p=0.04 as compared to patients without IR. R Spearman analysis found a positive relationship between VD and eGDR (Rs=0.27; p<0.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed significant relationship between the presence of IR and VD serum level/presence of 25(OH)D serum level below 10 ng/ml, both models adjusted to sex, age, BMI, LDL and triglycerides, accordingly (OR=0.95, CI: 0.90-0.99; p=0.04) and (OR=4.19, CI: 1.04-16.93; p=0.04).

Conclusion: The serum concentration of Vitamin D is negatively associated with insulin resistance in patients with T1DM and may have clinical implications.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Male
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood*


  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D