Purpose: Low- and middle-income countries have high incidences of cervical cancer linked to human papillomavirus (HPV), and without resources for cancer screenings these countries bear 85% of all cervical cancer cases. To address some of these needs, brigade-style screening combined with sensitive polymerase chain reaction-based HPV testing to detect common high-risk HPV genotypes may be necessary.
Methods: We deployed an inexpensive DNA extraction technique and a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based HPV genotyping assay, as well as Papanicolaou testing, in a factory in San Pedro Sula, Honduras, where 1,732 women were screened for cervical cancer.
Results: We found that 28% of participants were positive for high-risk HPV, with 26% of HPV-positive participants having more than one HPV infection. Moreover, the most common HPV genotypes detected were different than those routinely found in the United States.
Conclusion: This work demonstrates a deployable protocol for HPV screening in low- and middle-income countries with limited resources to perform cytopathology assessment of Pap smears.