Background: ATP1A2 has been identified as the genetic cause of familial hemiplegic migraine type 2. Over 80 ATP1A2 mutations have been reported, but no data from Chinese family studies has been included. Here, we report the first familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 Chinese family with a novel missense mutation.
Methods: Clinical manifestations in the family were recorded. Blood samples from patients and the unaffected members were collected for whole-exome sequencing to identify the pathogenic mutation. Seven online softwares (SIFT, PolyPhen-2, PROVEAN, PANTHER, MutationTaster2, MutationAssessor and PMut) were used for predicting the pathogenic potential of the mutation. PredictProtein, Jpred 4 and PyMOL were used to analyze structural changes of the protein. The mutation function was further tested by Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
Results: All patients in the family had typical hemiplegic migraine attacks. Co-segregation of the mutation with the migraine phenotype in four generations, with 10 patients, was completed. The identified novel mutation, G762S in ATP1A2, exhibited the disease-causing feature by all the predictive softwares. The mutation impaired the local structure of the protein and decreased cell viability.
Conclusion: G762S in ATP1A2 is a novel pathogenic mutation identified in a Chinese family with familial hemiplegic migraine, which causes loss of function by changing the protein structure of the Na+/K+-ATPase α2 subunit.
Keywords: ATP1A2; FHM; G762S; Na+/ K+-ATPase.