A method to screen apolipoprotein polymorphisms in whole plasma: description of apolipoprotein A-IV variants in dyslipidemias and a reassessment of apolipoprotein A-I in Tangier disease

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1987 Apr 24;918(3):242-9. doi: 10.1016/0005-2760(87)90227-x.


A sensitive and rapid immunological detection method was used to screen for apolipoprotein A-IV variants. Antibodies to human lymph chylomicron or plasma apolipoprotein A-IV, and plasma apolipoprotein A-I were raised in rabbits. Antibodies to apolipoprotein A-I or apolipoprotein A-IV were shown to be monospecific to their respective antigens by reactivity against human chylomicron apolipoproteins by immunoblot analysis. Plasma samples were obtained from dyslipidemic subjects from the Lipid Research Clinic of Columbia University. The plasma samples were isoelectrically focused (pH 4-6) on slab gels. Plasma proteins were then transferred to nitrocellulose paper for immunoblotting. Apolipoprotein A-IV polymorphism was determined by specific immunological detection of apolipoprotein A-IV. Identical apolipoprotein A-IV isoprotein patterns were observed when either antibodies to lymph or plasma apolipoprotein A-IV were used for immunoblotting. All the dyslipidemic plasma samples screened contained the two major and one or two minor isoproteins of normal plasma. In two instances, new apolipoprotein A-IV variants having an additional isoform were detected. One subject was hypertriglyceridemic (triacylglycerols = 342 mg/dl, cholesterol = 251 mg/dl) and had an additional major acidic apolipoprotein A-IV isoform. Another subject with mild hypocholesterolemia (triacylglycerols = 209 mg/dl, cholesterol = 120 mg/dl) was found to have additional major and minor basic apolipoprotein A-IV isoforms. The specificity of this technique allows detection of polymorphism of apolipoproteins of similar isoelectric points by use of a single dimension isoelectric focusing gel. This technique also demonstrated the presence of altered apolipoprotein A-I isoforms in the plasma of a patient with Tangier disease. These isoforms were previously identified as isoforms 2 and 4 of normal plasma by use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. However, by use of this new technique and careful evaluation of previously published two-dimensional gels, we now identify these apolipoprotein A-I isoforms as being more acidic than those of normal plasma.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Apolipoprotein A-I
  • Apolipoproteins / blood
  • Apolipoproteins / genetics*
  • Apolipoproteins A / blood
  • Apolipoproteins A / genetics
  • Genetic Variation
  • Humans
  • Hyperlipoproteinemias / blood
  • Hyperlipoproteinemias / genetics
  • Hypolipoproteinemias / blood
  • Hypolipoproteinemias / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Tangier Disease / blood
  • Tangier Disease / genetics


  • Apolipoprotein A-I
  • Apolipoproteins
  • Apolipoproteins A
  • apolipoprotein A-IV