Background: High sodium and low potassium consumption are risk factors for hypertension. The objectives of this study were to describe usual daily intake of sodium and potassium among US Hispanics/Latinos of diverse background groups and estimate the proportion meeting guidelines for dietary sodium and potassium intake.
Methods: We studied 16,171 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a diverse group of self-identified Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years from 4 US communities. In 2008-2011, all HCHS/SOL participants underwent a standardized examination. Median usual daily intake of dietary sodium and potassium were derived from two 24-hour diet recalls; standard errors and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using boot strap methods. Meeting 2015 US Department of Agriculture guidelines was defined as an intake of <2,300 mg/day of sodium and ≥4,700 mg/day of potassium.
Results: Among US Hispanics/Latinos, median usual daily intake of sodium was 2,574 mg (95% CI: 2,547, 2,600) among women and 3,747 mg (95% CI: 3,697, 3,796) among men. Median usual daily intake of potassium was 2,069 mg (95% CI: 2,046, 2,092) among women and 2,649 mg (95% CI: 2,615, 2,683) among men. Overall, only 21.3% (95% CI: 20.2%, 22.4%) of the US Hispanic/Latino population met 2015 recommendations for sodium and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4%, 0.8%) for potassium.
Conclusions: Among US Hispanics/Latinos intake of sodium is too high and potassium too low. Strategies to reduce sodium intake while simultaneously increasing intake of potassium in this US population are warranted.
Keywords: Hispanics; Latinos; blood pressure; hypertension; potassium; recommendations; sodium.
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