Daily Intake of Sodium and Potassium Among Diverse US Hispanics/Latinos, the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

Am J Hypertens. 2019 Aug 14;32(9):868-879. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpz073.

Abstract

Background: High sodium and low potassium consumption are risk factors for hypertension. The objectives of this study were to describe usual daily intake of sodium and potassium among US Hispanics/Latinos of diverse background groups and estimate the proportion meeting guidelines for dietary sodium and potassium intake.

Methods: We studied 16,171 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a diverse group of self-identified Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years from 4 US communities. In 2008-2011, all HCHS/SOL participants underwent a standardized examination. Median usual daily intake of dietary sodium and potassium were derived from two 24-hour diet recalls; standard errors and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using boot strap methods. Meeting 2015 US Department of Agriculture guidelines was defined as an intake of <2,300 mg/day of sodium and ≥4,700 mg/day of potassium.

Results: Among US Hispanics/Latinos, median usual daily intake of sodium was 2,574 mg (95% CI: 2,547, 2,600) among women and 3,747 mg (95% CI: 3,697, 3,796) among men. Median usual daily intake of potassium was 2,069 mg (95% CI: 2,046, 2,092) among women and 2,649 mg (95% CI: 2,615, 2,683) among men. Overall, only 21.3% (95% CI: 20.2%, 22.4%) of the US Hispanic/Latino population met 2015 recommendations for sodium and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4%, 0.8%) for potassium.

Conclusions: Among US Hispanics/Latinos intake of sodium is too high and potassium too low. Strategies to reduce sodium intake while simultaneously increasing intake of potassium in this US population are warranted.

Keywords: Hispanics; Latinos; blood pressure; hypertension; potassium; recommendations; sodium.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Pressure
  • Diet / adverse effects
  • Diet / ethnology*
  • Female
  • Hispanic Americans*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / diagnosis
  • Hypertension / ethnology*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Hypertension / prevention & control
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Potassium, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Potassium, Dietary / adverse effects
  • Protective Factors
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sodium, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Sodium, Dietary / adverse effects
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Potassium, Dietary
  • Sodium, Dietary