Water Resistance Therapy as Vocal Warm-Up Method in Contemporary Commercial Music Singers

Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2020;72(1):1-12. doi: 10.1159/000494722. Epub 2019 May 6.


Background/aims: Although water resistance therapy (WRT) has been widely used in voice training, no data are supporting the effectiveness of WRT as vocal warm-up for singers. The present study aimed to determine the effects of WRT as a vocal warm-up method in contemporary commercial music (CCM) singers.

Methods: Twenty-two CCM singers were randomly assigned to one of two types of 15-min vocal warm-up: open vocal tract (OVT) warm-up and WRT. Self-perceived resonant voice quality and aerodynamic, electroglottographic, and acoustic measures were assessed before, immediately after vocal warm-up, and after 40 min of vocal loading.

Results: Significant results were found immediately after vocal warm-up. Subglottic pressure and inspiratory airflow duration decreased in both groups. SPL decreased for the OVT group. No changes in SPL were found for the WRT group. Significant results were observed after vocal loading. Subglottic pressure and inspiratory airflow duration decreased for both groups after vocal loading. Expiratory airflow duration and electroglottographic contact quotient decreased for the OVT group.

Conclusion: Some objective data suggest that the WRT method is more effective as vocal warm-up than OVT exercises. Since outcomes in self-perceived resonant voice quality for both methods were similar but physiological effects were different, vocal warm-up strategies might produce a placebo effect.

Keywords: Acoustic and electroglottographic measures; Aerodynamic measure; Semi-occluded vocal tract; Singing; Voice training; Warm-up; Water resistance therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Music*
  • Phonation
  • Singing*
  • Voice Training
  • Water


  • Water