Identification of rat liver mitochondrial asparagine-pyruvate transaminase with phenylalanine-pyruvate transaminase has been done. When a mitochondria extract was subjected to isoelectric focusing, the two enzyme activities were identically focused. This procedure and DEAE-Sepharose chromatography revealed multiple forms of the enzyme, in which the main form was purified. In the various purification steps the two enzyme activities appeared in the same fraction. The enzyme of the final preparation step gave a single band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. During the purification, a similar increase of the specific activity and yield were obtained in the two activities. Phenylalanine was found to be a competitive inhibitor of asparagine transaminase. These results suggest the identity of the two enzymes.