The immunoregulatory molecule CTLA-4 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. CTLA-4-neutralizing antibodies are now approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma, and are in development for treating other cancers as well. However, a thorough understanding of CTLA-4 function at the molecular level is necessary in order to develop strategies to prevent the unintended autoimmunity that is frequently associated with systemic blockade of CTLA-4 activity. Here, we describe an extracellular molecule, repulsive guidance molecule B (RGMB) as a novel binding partner of CTLA-4. RGMB expression was detected at high levels in dendritic cell subsets that have been suggested to have tolerogenic capabilities. RGMB binds an extracellular domain of CTLA-4, and specifically strengthens the binding of the monomeric, soluble form of CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) to CD80, enhancing CTLA-4's suppressive effect on co-stimulation. Examination of expression data from tumor tissues revealed a negative correlation between RGMB expression and immune activation status in the majority of non-hematologic tumor tissues. These findings advance our understanding of CTLA-4 activity, as well as identify the RGMB/CTLA-4 binding interface as a potential target for the development of novel immune checkpoint blockade therapies.