Ultrasound Evaluation of Dermal Sinuses/Fistulas in Pediatric Patients

J Ultrasound Med. 2019 Dec;38(12):3107-3122. doi: 10.1002/jum.15016. Epub 2019 May 7.


A dermal sinus/fistula is a common condition; the relevant department should be consulted for appropriate treatment. It is important for radiologists to have adequate knowledge of these conditions to provide the correct diagnosis and recommend subsequent management. This review describes the following lesions: preauricular sinus, midline sinus of the upper lip, nasal dermoid sinus cyst, cheek fistula, first branchial cleft anomaly/sublingual branchial cleft anomaly, thyroglossal duct cyst/fistula, lateral cervical sinus/fistula, congenital dermal sinus/fistula of the anterior chest region, congenital skin sinus/fistula with a sternal cleft, and congenital prepubic sinus. On the basis of the skin orifice location and ultrasound images, radiologists can provide useful information to physicians.

Keywords: branchial cleft anomaly; congenital anomaly; dermal sinus; dermoid sinus; pediatrics; salivary fistula.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Cutaneous Fistula / congenital
  • Cutaneous Fistula / diagnostic imaging*
  • Humans
  • Spina Bifida Occulta / diagnostic imaging*
  • Ultrasonography