Laryngeal histoplasmosis in a kidney transplant recipient

Transpl Infect Dis. 2019 Aug;21(4):e13102. doi: 10.1111/tid.13102. Epub 2019 May 22.


Histoplasma capsulatum is an endemic fungus that most oftenly causes a self-limiting illness but can result in severe infections in immunocompromised patients including pulmonary or extra-pulmonary disease. Rarely it can also cause a chronic progressive infection of the larynx. Herein, we report a case of laryngeal histoplasmosis in a kidney transplant patient who presented with progressive symptoms of several weeks of hoarseness, dysphagia and odynophagia. Laryngoscopic examination revealed thick plaques in the oropharynx with surrounding hyper-erythema and histopathology showed numerous intracellular yeasts forms consistent with H capsulatum. Patient was initiated on treatment with itraconazole. Infection of the larynx due to H capsulatum is highly uncommon and therefore can result in an inappropriate or delayed diagnosis. A review of literature showed four previously reported cases of laryngeal histoplasmosis in patients with solid organ transplant. This is the first case series of laryngeal histoplasmosis in transplant recipients.

Keywords: histoplasmosis; infection; kidney transplant; laryngitis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Histoplasma / drug effects
  • Histoplasmosis / diagnosis*
  • Histoplasmosis / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • Itraconazole / therapeutic use
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Larynx / microbiology*
  • Male
  • Transplant Recipients*


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Itraconazole