Performance of Plasminogen Activator inhibitor-1 as a Biomarker in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography: Analytical and Biological Considerations

Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2019 Sep;16(5):478-482. doi: 10.1177/1479164119845123. Epub 2019 May 8.


Introduction and objective: Target lesion failure continues to limit the efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention despite advancements in stent design and medical therapy. Identification of biomarkers to risk stratify patients after percutaneous coronary intervention has the potential to focus therapies on cohorts with increased benefits. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 has been identified as a candidate biomarker. Herein, we evaluate biological variables which impact plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels and analytical characteristics which impact its utility as a biomarker in humans.

Methods: Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was measured in 689 patients undergoing coronary angiography. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were measured. Clinical and procedural characteristics were collected in a prospective registry.

Results: Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 analytical (CVa = 4.1%), intra-individual (CVi = 44.0%) and inter-individual (CVg = 118.6%) variations with reference change value of 122.3% were calculated. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were elevated in patients with cardiovascular risk factors, including type 2 diabetes, pre-diabetes, smokers, obesity, hypertension, and daytime variation in procedure and blood draw.

Conclusion: Variation in plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels is influenced by multiple biological and procedural characteristics. The performance of plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is consistent with biomarkers in clinical use (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein) and its applicability is promising.

Keywords: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; biomarkers; coronary artery disease; diabetes mellitus; percutaneous coronary intervention.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Clinical Decision-Making
  • Coronary Angiography*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / blood*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / diagnostic imaging*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / blood*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Registries
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
  • SERPINE1 protein, human