Background: Tailored care management requires effectively segmenting heterogeneous populations into actionable subgroups. Using patient reported data may help identify groups with care needs not revealed in traditional clinical data.
Methods: We conducted retrospective segmentation analyses of 9,617 Kaiser Permanente Colorado members age 65 or older at risk for high utilization due to advanced illness and geriatric issues who had completed a Medicare Health Risk Assessment (HRA) between 2014 and 2017. We separately applied clustering methods and latent class analyses (LCA) to HRA variables to identify groups of individuals with actionable profiles that may inform care management. HRA variables reflected self-reported quality of life, mood, activities of daily living (ADL), urinary incontinence, falls, living situation, isolation, financial constraints, and advance directives. We described groups by demographic, utilization, and clinical characteristics.
Results: Cluster analyses produced a 14-cluster solution and LCA produced an 8-class solution reflecting groups with identifiable care needs. Example groups included: frail individuals with memory impairment less likely to live independently, those with poor physical and mental well-being and ADL limitations, those with ADL limitations but good mental and physical well-being, and those with few health or other limitations differentiated by age, presence or absence of a documented advance directive, and tobacco use.
Conclusions: Segmenting populations with complex care needs into meaningful subgroups can inform tailored care management. We found groups produced through cluster methods to be more intuitive, but both methods produced actionable information. Applying these methods to patient-reported data may make care more efficient and patient-centered.
Keywords: cluster analysis; latent class analysis; multimorbidity; patient-reported data.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors have no competing interests to declare.
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