Incidence, Risk Factors, and Prevention Strategies for Venous Thromboembolism after Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

Ann Surg Oncol. 2019 Jul;26(7):2276-2284. doi: 10.1245/s10434-019-07414-8. Epub 2019 May 7.


Background: The risk factors and incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) are not well defined in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC). We sought to characterize the incidence, risk factors, and pharmacothromboprophylaxis strategies for VTE after CRS/HIPEC.

Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective study of CRS/HIPEC procedures at our institution from 8/2007 to 11/2017, examining the 60-day VTE incidence. Baseline, potential risk factor, and prevention strategy data were collected. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with 60-day VTEs.

Results: We identified 25 60-day VTEs among 447 CRS/HIPEC procedures (5.6%). VTEs were discovered on median postoperative day 20 (range 2-59); pulmonary emboli (68%) were the most common type of VTE. The 60-day VTE rate was 10.2% before versus 4.9% after initiation of a policy to discharge patients on pharmacothromboprophylaxis (p = 0.10). Patients with 60-day VTEs had longer average length of stay (14 vs. 11 days, p = 0.01) and higher 60-day mortality rate (4% vs. 0.2%, p = 0.02) than those without VTEs. Caprini score (odds ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-2.15, p = 0.01), preoperative serum albumin level (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.16-1.00, p = 0.05), and 60-day non-VTE serious morbidity (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.25-9.51, p = 0.02) were risk factors associated with 60-day VTEs on multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: VTEs are relatively common after CRS/HIPEC and are associated with high Caprini scores, low serum albumin levels, and additional inpatient comorbidities. They result in longer length of stay and higher mortality rate. Compliance with current guidelines for extended postoperative thromboprophylaxis was likely associated with reduced VTE rate.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use*
  • California / epidemiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion / adverse effects
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / adverse effects*
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Patient Discharge
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Venous Thromboembolism / epidemiology
  • Venous Thromboembolism / etiology*
  • Venous Thromboembolism / prevention & control*
  • Young Adult


  • Anticoagulants