Hypertension is highly prevalent and morbid in the chronic kidney disease population, and blood pressure (BP) targets for this population are unclear. We aimed to compare all-cause mortality outcomes with intensively targeting systolic BP to <130 mm Hg versus a standard of <140 mm Hg. Individual patient data from 4983 chronic kidney disease patients with hypertension were pooled from 4 multicenter randomized control trials-AASK (African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension), ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes), MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease), and the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial). Patients were assigned their trial-assigned randomized intervention group-standard (n=2474) versus intensive (n=2509) BP targets. Additional analyses included excluding patients with a glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 along with those undergoing intensive glycemic control. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Average achieved BP was 125.0 mm Hg in the intensive group and 136.9 mm Hg in the standard group. In the primary analysis, the all-cause mortality rate trended towards improved outcomes with intensive treatment but was not statistically significant (hazard ratio: 0.87 [0.69-1.08]; P=0.21). One hundred seventy-three of 2474 patients (1.95% per year) in the standard group and 153 of 2509 patients (1.71% per year) in the intensive group died. After excluding patients with higher glomerular filtration rate values and those undergoing intensive glycemic control, there was a statistically significant decrease in all-cause mortality rate (hazard ratio: 0.79 [0.63-1.00]; P=0.048). An intensive BP target of <130 mm Hg decreases all-cause mortality when compared with a standard target of <140 mm Hg in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 or greater who are not undergoing intensive glycemic therapy.
Keywords: blood pressure; cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease; morbidity; mortality.