Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) enable many applications such as intelligent control, prediction, tracking, and other communication network services, which are integrated into many technologies of the Internet-of-Things. The conventional localization frameworks may not function well in practical environments since they were designed either for two-dimensional space only, or have high computational costs, or are sensitive to measurement errors. In order to build an accurate and efficient localization scheme, we consider in this paper a hybrid received signal strength and angle-of-arrival localization in three-dimensional WSNs, where sensors are randomly deployed with the transmit power and the path loss exponent unknown. Moreover, in order to avoid the difficulty of solving the conventional maximum-likelihood estimator due to its non-convex and highly complex natures, we derive a weighted least squares estimate to estimate jointly the location of the unknown node and the two aforementioned channel components through some suitable approximations. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Keywords: angle-of-arrival; hybrid localization; received signal strength; suboptimal; weighted least squares estimate; wireless sensor networks.