Social Pressure for Pregnancy Scale: Its Development, Psychometric Properties, and Potential Contributions to Infertility and Depression Research

J Nurs Meas. 2019 Apr 1;27(1):5-15. doi: 10.1891/1061-3749.27.1.5.


Background: Women with infertility in different cultures, especially those in West African countries, are viewed as inferior. They tend to experience discrimination and have suboptimal mental health outcomes. However, recent evidence shows that social pressure for pregnancy, not infertility, is a significant predictor of depression. Yet, instruments that measure social pressure for pregnancy are scarce. Existing instruments to measure social pressure for pregnancy show no evidence of psychometric properties.

Purpose: To assess the psychometric properties of a new tool, the Social Pressure for Pregnancy Scale (SPPS), among Malian women in West Africa.

Methods: Exploratory factor analysis, and analyses of convergent validity, discriminant validity (known-groups technique), and reliability.

Results and conclusion: The SPPS has good psychometric properties and can be used in future infertility studies especially in relation to depression.

Keywords: Africa; depression; infertility; pregnancy; psychometric properties; social pressure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Depressive Disorder / etiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infertility / psychology*
  • Mali
  • Middle Aged
  • Pregnancy / psychology*
  • Pregnant Women / psychology*
  • Psychometrics / standards*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Social Stigma*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult