177Lu-PSMA radioligand therapy (LuPRLT) is mainly used for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who are resistant to established drugs. This study describes LuPRLT, either LuPSMA I&T or LuPSMA RLT-617, for 45 patients with predominant lymph node metastatic prostate cancer (LNM PC). Thirty-five patients had LNM and ten patients had LNM and one or two bone metastases. Before LuPRLT, the patients had prostate specific antigen (PSA) of median 18 µg/l (interquartile range (IQR): 3.3-39). LuPRLT was given with a cumulative injected 177Lu activity of median 14.5 GBq (IQR: 12.2-20.4). Maximum percentage decline of PSA was median 92% (IQR: 70-99). Thirty-five patients with only LNM had a better overall survival (OS) than ten patients with LNM and one or two bone metastases. Thirty-three docetaxel-naïve patients had a longer PSMA PET/CT progression-free survival than twelve patients who were resistant to docetaxel. Twenty-two patients who received LuPRLT with a cumulative injected 177Lu activity ≥ 14.8 GBq had a better PSMA PET/CT progression-free survival than 23 patients who received LuPRLT with a lower cumulative injected 177Lu activity. Seventeen patients with relapse after LuPRLT who received rechallenge LuPRLT or ActPRLT had a better OS than five patients who received other forms for relapse treatment. LuPRLT gave mild and transitory adverse effects. The findings of the present study suggest that LuPRLT of patients with LNM may be effective and safe. The promising results motivate randomized phase II trials to further quantify the impact of LuPRLT as treatment of patients with LNM.
Keywords: PSA response; lutetium prostate specific membrane antigen radiolabeled radionuclide therapy; metastatic prostate cancer; overall survival; relapse treatment.